Major Episodes of Political Violence
1946-2013

Compiled by Dr. Monty G. Marshall
Director, Center for Systemic Peace

This Web page was last updated on March 27, 2014.
NIGERIA (CW2) since 2009; Boko Haram Islamist militants in northeast IVORY COAST (CW2) 2011;  rejection of election results leads to resumption of civil war; ouster of Gbagbo regime USA (IV1) since 2005; stabilization operation in Afghanistan PAKISTAN (EV1) since 1997; sectarisn violence mainly between Sunnis and Shias PAKISTAN (EV1) since 2005; separatist violence in Baluchistan SYRIA (EW5) since 2011; ethnic-Sunni Islamist rebellion against Assad's ethnic-Alawite regime YEMEN (CV1) since 2011; civil violence connected with demonstrations to oust Saleh and southern separatists KYRGYZSTAN (EV2) 2010; Kyrgyz-Uzbek communal violence following ouster of Bakiyev MEXICO (CV3) since 2006; drug traffickers COLOMBIA (CV4) since 1975; land reform and drug trafficking NIGERIA (EV1) 1997-2010; civil violence in Delta region CHAD (CW1) 2005-2010; Anti-Deby regime: United Front for Democratic Change (FUC), Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD), and others and (EV2) 2006-2010; Communal fighting between Toroboro (black sedentary farmer) and Janjawid (Arab pastoralist) militias CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (EW2) since 2005; ethnic warfare in northern regions, Muslim/Christian militia fighting in south SUDAN (EV5) since 2003; ethnic and separatist violence in Darfur DEM. REP. OF CONGO (CW5) since 1996; regional militias, remnants of wars in Burundi, DRC, Rwanda, and Uganda YEMEN (CV1) since 2004; rebellion by al Houthi Zaidis SOUTH SUDAN (EV1) since 2010; Lou Nuer-Murle communal violence in South Sudan ETHIOPIA (EV1) since 2007; Somali and Oromo rebellion in Ogaden SOMALIA (CW5) since 1988; civil warfare in southern region ISRAEL (EW2) since 1965; Israeli-Palestinian warfare RUSSIA (EV1) since 2008; Islamist militants in eastern Transcaucasus region TURKEY (EV1) since 2004; ethnic-Kurds in the southeast IRAQ (EV3) since 2011; continuing Sunni-Shia sectarian strife since withdrawal of US forces in 2010 AFGHANISTAN (IW3) since 2001; ouster of Taliban and aftermath PAKISTAN (EW4) since 2004; ethnic-Pashtun rebellion in FATA INDIA (EW3) since 1990; ethnic war in Kashmir INDIA (CV2) since 2001; Maoist insurgency INDIA (EW2) since 1952; ethnic/communal warfare in northeast MYANMAR (EW4) since 1948; ethnic warfare with various non-Burman groups THAILAND (EV1) since 2004; Malay-Muslim rebellion PHILIPPINES (EW3) since 1972; Moro separatism in Mindanao and Sulu SOUTH SUDAN (EW3) since 2013; Rebellion by ethnic Nuer supporters of Reik Machar leads to war with ethnic Dinka supporters of President Salva Kiir USA (IW2) 2003-2010; Ouster of Hussein-Ba'athist regime and subsequent sectarian strife NIGERIA (EV1) since 2010; Muslim-Christian violence in north-central region EGYPT (CV1) 2011; civil strife leading to ouster of Mubarak and (CV1) since 2013; military ouster of Morsi and repression/rebellion of Muslim Brotherhood (NORTH) SUDAN (EV1) since 2011; rebellion by Sudan People's Liberation Army-North in Blue Nile and North Kordofan D.R.CONGO (EV1) since 2013; ethnic Mai Mai separatist rebellion in Katanga Province MALI (CV1) 2012-2013; Islamist Ansar Dine and ethnic-Tuareg 'Azawad' separatists SRI LANKA (EW5) 1983-2009; ethnic-Tamil separatism (LTTE) LIBYA (CW4) 2011; forced ouster of Gaddhafi regime; NATO intervention

State Fragility and Warfare in the Global System 2013


Place cursor on the icons on the map for a brief description of the Warfare Events
Click here for a complete list of 2012 State Fragility Scores

The following table lists 331 episodes of armed conflict (including 32 ongoing cases) that comprise a comprehensive accounting of all forms of major armed conflicts in the world over the contemporary period: 1946-2013 (see note 4 below). "Major episodes of political violence" involve at least 500 "directly-related" fatalities and reach a level of intensity in which political violence is both systematic and sustained (a base rate of 100 "directly-related deaths per annum"). Episodes may be of any general type: inter-state, intra-state, or communal; they include all episodes of international, civil, ethnic, communal, and genocidal violence and warfare. Episodes are coded on a scale of one to ten according to an assessment of the full impact of their violence on the societies that directly experience their effects. The effects of political violence and warfare include fatalities and casualties, resource depletion, destruction of infrastructure, and population dislocations, among other things such as the psychological trauma to individuals and adverse changes to the social psychology and political culture of affected social identity groups. The resulting categories represent standardized event magnitudes based on levels of societal affect (i.e., a measure of the general magnitude that a society's normal networking and functioning is affected by violent disruption); the scaled categories are considered comparative units of measurement. Global and regional trends in warfare are visualized graphically by aggregating the coded scores for all ongoing episodes of major armed conflict in a given year; see the CSP Conflict Trends page. For a more detailed explanation of the coding methodology, click here.

Cases highlighted in red were ongoing 1n early-2014 (24 cases); ongoing cases highlighted in orange have diminished substantially in magnitude during the last six months of the most recent year (2013) and may be ending (8 cases). All episodes that are denoted as having ended within the past five years (i.e., since January 2009) are highlighted in yellow; these cases are considered at high risk of return to warfare (11 cases).

Note that several revisions were made to the list in regard to episodes in Africa. A thorough re-examination of the case list for African countries was conducted under the auspices of a Summer 2005 contract with the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID) and the African Conflict Prevention Pool for a study and report on "Conflict Trends in Africa." The final report was delivered in October 2005; a full copy of the report, including seven data annexes, is available on the CSP Web site. Click here to view the CSP Africa analysis or download the report in PDF format.

Note also that several revisions were made to the list in regard to cases that previously had been included with unknown "estimates of directly-related deaths" (denoted "na"). As new sources of information have become available in recent years, and particularly with the expansion of Keesings Online news archives, all episodes listed as "unknown" were investigated in early 2009 to confirm or disconfirm their listing. As a result, several episodes have been delisted and some others were refined. All episodes listed now include an estimate of directly-related deaths (Death). For a detailed accounting of these changes, please contact the Center for Systemic Peace.

The variables listed in the "Major Episodes of Political Violence" table are as follows:

Inclusive years (Begin and End): The beginnings and endings of most political violence episodes are difficult to determine exactly; various researchers "pinpoint" and denote various dates. The "begin" and "end" years listed for each episode (below) are those considered by the author to be those most likely to capture the transformative "moments" (beginning and ending) of the episodes, according to a comparison of the varying claims of the sources noted. No "end" year is listed for episodes that began and ended in the same year.

Episode type (Type): Episode type is listed according to two character codes. The first character denotes either a (C)ivil-intrastate involving rival political groups; (E)thnic-intrastate involving the state agent and a distinct ethnic group; or (I)nternational event-interstate, usually two or more states, but may denote a distinct polity resisting foreign domination (colonialism). The second character connotes either an episode of (V)iolence-the use of instrumental violence without necessarily exclusive goals; (W)ar-violence between distinct, exclusive groups with the intent to impose a unilateral result to the contention; or i(N)dependence-an attempt to forcibly remove an existing foreign domination.

Magnitude of societal-systemic impact (Mag): The rationale and methodology for assessing the societal and systemic impact of warfare episodes is discussed and described in detail in the accompanying text. The number listed represents a scaled indicator of the destructive impact, or magnitude, of the violent episode on the directly-affected society or societies on a scale of 1 (smallest) to 10 (greatest). Magnitude scores reflect multiple factors including state capabilities, interactive intensity (means and goals), area and scope of death and destruction, population displacement, and episode duration. Scores are considered to be consistently assigned (i.e., comparable) across episode types and for all states directly involved. For a more detailed explanation of the coding scheme used, click here.

Episode location (States Directly Involved): Countries listed are only those upon whose territory the political violence episode actually takes place, that is, those state-societies directly affected by the warfare. Countries intervening in the episodes are not listed as the violence does not take place on their territory and, so, these intervening actors are considered to be indirectly, or remotely, affected by the violence.

Estimates of "directly-related" deaths (Deaths): Accountings of the number of deaths resulting directly from an episode of political violence are difficult to determine and estimates often vary widely. This difficulty is especially problematic as the distinction between combatants and non-combatants has grown increasingly obscure as "less formal" civil conflict interactions in less institutionalized societal systems predominate in the contemporary era. As argued in the text, such estimates of "battle-related deaths" should be regarded simply as estimates of the general magnitude of the violence. The numbers listed here reflect the median or mean of often widely disparate estimates listed in the various sources and are provided solely as a referent point. Casualties among non-combatants directly related to the violent conflict are inconsistently estimated (if at all) in the various source estimates. Far more problematic than "battle-related deaths" for societal systems are the much larger numbers of persons directly and indirectly, physically and psychologically, distorted and disturbed by violence during episodes of armed conflict (for this we have no estimation procedure).


MAJOR EPISODES OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE, 1946-2013
Begin End Type Mag States Directly Involved Brief Description Deaths References
1945 1946 IN 2 Indonesia Independence 10000 a b c f g h
1945 1947 EV 2 Iran Azerbaijani and Kurd rebellions 2000 c f g
1945 1949 CW 5 Greece Greek civil war 150000 a b c f g h o
1945 1954 IN 6 Vietnam Indochina independence 500000 a b c f g h
1946 1954 IW 2 France4 Indochina independence 30000 a b c f g h
1946 * CV 1 Bolivia President Villarroel ousted by general armed uprising 1000 c f o
1946 1947 IN 2 Algeria Setif/AML Rebellion 6000 p
1946 1948 EW 6 India
Pakistan
"Partition"--Muslims vs Hindus/Sikhs 1000000 a b c d f g
1946 1950 CW 6 China Chinese civil war 1000000 a b c f h o
1947 * IV 1 China Taiwan invasion 1000 a c h o
1947 * CW 3 China Repression of Taiwan dissidents 20000 a c e f
1947 * CV 1 Paraguay Paraguay Civil War "Febrerista Insurrection" 1500 a c f h o
1947 1948 CV 1 Yemen AR Civil violence (Yahya clan coup attempt) 5000 a c h o
1947 1948 IN 4 Madagascar Colonial repression 40000 a b c e f g h
1947 1949 EV 2 India Kashmir rebellion 4000 a c f g h n
1948 * IN 1 Israel Independence 4000 b
1948 * CV 1 Colombia Civil violence (Conservatives) 1000 a b c f h o
1948 * CV 1 Costa Rica Civil violence (National Union) 2000 a c f g h o
1948 * CV 1 South Korea Civil violence (Army) 1000 a c f
1948 * CV 1 India Civil violence (Hyderabad) 2500 a c f g h
1948 1949 IW 5 Egypt
Israel
Jordan
Lebanon
Syria
Palestine-Israel war 10000 a b c d f g h
1948 1956 EW 2 Malaysia Repression of Chinese by Malay militia 12500 e
1948 2013+ EW 4 Myanmar (Burma)1 Ethnic war (Karen, Shan, and others) 110000 a b c d e f h j k l o p
1948 1960 CW 5 Colombia "La Violencia" civil war (Liberals) 250000 a b c f h
1950 * IV 2 China
Taiwan
International violence (Formosa Straits) 5000 f g
1950 * EV 2 Indonesia Ethnic violence (Moluccans) 5000 a b c f h o
1950 1951 IW 2 China2 Tibet invasion 2000 a c f g h k
1950 1951 CV 4 China Repression of the landlords 1500000 a e
1950 1952 CV 3 Philippines Civil violence (Huks) 10000 a b c f h o
1950 1953 IV 2 Myanmar (Burma) Chinese Kuomintang forces led by Gen. Li Mi 3000 c p
1950 1953 CW 6 North Korea
South Korea
Korean War (civil war) 1500000 a b c f g h n
1950 1953 IV 3 USA4 Korean civil war 54000 a b c f g h n
1950 1953 IV 4 China4 Korean civil war 100000 a b c f g h n
1950 1960 CV 3 Malaysia3 Independence and civil violence 15000 a b f g h o
1951 * CV 1 Thailand Mahattan Naval Revolt 1200 c p
1952 * CV 1 Egypt Civil violence (Nasser coup) 1000 f
1952 * CV 2 Bolivia "National Revolution" 2000 a c f h
1952 1954 IN 2 Tunisia Independence 3000 a c f g h
1952 1963 IN 3 Kenya Independence (Mau Mau rebellion) 20000 a b c f g h
1952 2013+ EW 2 India Ethnic war (northeast tribals; Assam separatists) 25500 c k o p
1953 * CV 1 Indonesia Civil violence (Darul Islam) 1000 a b c h o
1953 * CV 1 Iran Ouster of Mossadeq government by Shah loyalists 800 p
1953 1954 CV 3 Vietnam Repression of landlords 15000 e
1953 1956 IN 2 Morocco Independence 3000 a c f g h
1954 * CV 1 Guatemala Civil violence (coup against Arbenz) 1000 a c h o
1954 1955 IW 3 China
Taiwan
First Taiwan Strait Crisis 25000 c p
1954 1955 EV 2 Taiwan Ethnic violence (Native Taiwanese v KMT) 5000 a c
1954 1962 IN 5 Algeria Independence 100000 a b c f g h k
1954 1962 IW 3 France4 Algerian independence war 18000 a b c f g h k
1955 * CV 1 Costa Rica Civil violence 1000 c f
1955 * CV 2 Taiwan Civil violence (Taiwanese v KMT) 5000 a
1955 * CV 2 Argentina Civil violence (army rebellion) 3000 a c h k
1955 1960 IN 3 Cameroon Independence 30000 a b c f h
1956 * IW 2 Egypt Suez War 3000 a c d f g h n
1956 * IW 3 Hungary
USSR
International war 20000 a b c f g h o
1956 1960 EV 1 Yemen AR Ethnic violence (Yemeni-Adenese clans) 1000 c f
1956 1967 EW 4 China Ethnic war (Tibetans) 100000 a b c e f g h j o
1956 1972 EW 5 Sudan Ethnic warfare (Islamic v African) 500000 a b c e f g h k o
1957 * IV 1 Honduras
Nicaragua
International violence (border dispute) 1000 c f
1957 1958 IV 1 Mauritania
Morocco
International violence (border dispute) 1000 f g
1957 1959 CW 2 Cuba Civil war (Castro ousts Batista) 5000 a b c f h k o
1957 1961 CV 3 Indonesia Civil violence (dissident military) 30000 a b c f h k o
1958 * CV 1 Lebanon Civil violence 2000 a c f g h k o
1958 * CV 1 Iraq Civil violence (coup ousts monarchy) 2000 a c g o
1958 * CV 1 Venezuela Civil violence (popular revolt against President Perez Jimenez) 800 p
1958 1975 CW 7 North Vietnam
South Vietnam
"Vietnam War" (civil war) 2000000 a b c e g h k n o
1959 * CV 1 Iraq Civil violence (Shammar tribe) 2000 a c h
1959 * CW 2 China Repression of counter-revolutionaries 50000 k
1959 1966 EW 3 Rwanda PARMEHUTU overthrow of Tutsi monarchy; repression of Tutsis 75000 a b c e f g h k o p
1960 1961 EV 1 Pakistan Ethnic violence (Pushtun) 1000 k
1960 1965 CW 4 Zaire Katanga civil war 100000 a b c e g h k o
1960 1973 CW 3 Laos Civil war 25000 a b c e f h k o
1961 * IV 1 Cuba US-instigated "Bay of Pigs" invasion 700 c p
1961 * CV 1 Tunisia Colonial violence 1000 c f
1961 1975 IN 4 Angola5 Independence 50000 a b c e f g h
1961 1975 IV 1 Portugal4 Angolan independence 7000 a b c e f g h
1961 1993 EW 5 Iraq Ethnic warfare (Kurds) 150000 a b c d e f h j k l o
1962 * IV 1 China
India
International violence (border dispute) 2000 a b c f g h n
1962 1963 CV 1 Algeria Civil violence (rebel factions) 2000 a c e h o
1962 1964 IV 1 Burundi
Rwanda
International violence 1500 c p
1962 1966 IV 1 Indonesia
Malaysia
International violence (north Borneo) 1500 c g
1962 1970 CW 3 Yemen AR Civil war (following coup) 40000 a b c f h k o
1962 1973 EV 1 Ethiopia Eritrean separatists 2000 p
1962 1974 IN 3 Guinea-Bissau Independence 15000 h m
1963 * CV 1 Iraq Military coup ousts Kassem and aftermath 5000 c p
1963 * CV 1 Iran Civil violence (land reform) 1000 k
1963 1964 IV 1 Somalia
Egypt
International violence 1000 c f
1963 1964 IV 1 Algeria
Morocco
International violence (border dispute) 1000 c f g
1963 1968 CV 2 Cyprus Civil violence (Makarios crisis) 2000 k o
1963 1993 EW 2 Indonesia Ethnic warfare (Papuan-West Irian) 15000 j o
1964 * CV 1 Zambia Civil violence 1000 a c
1964 * CV 1 Tanzania Zanzibar Revolution 2500 c p
1964 * IV 1 Ethiopia
Somalia
Ogaden clashes 2000 p
1964 1966 EV 1 Kenya Shifta; Somali separatism 1000 p
1964 1973 IV 3 USA4 Vietnamese civil war 60000 a b c e g h k n o
1965 * EV 2 Burundi Ethnic violence (failed coup; Hutu/Tutsi) 5000 k
1965 * CV 2 Dominican Republic Civil violence 3000 a b c h k o
1965 * IW 3 India
Pakistan
2nd Kashmir War 20000 a b c d f g h n
1965 1966 CW 5 Indonesia Repression of Chinese/Communists 500000 a b c e f k o
1965 1968 CV 1 USA Civil violence (urban Afro-American unrest) 1000 k
1965 1975 IN 3 Mozambique Independence (FRELIMO) 30000 a b f g h
1965 1975 IV 1 Portugal4 Mozambique independence 5000 a b f g h
1965 1983 CW 2 Thailand Communist insurgency 8000 l p
1965 1990 IN 2 Namibia Independence 25000 b c f g
1965 1994 CW 4 Chad Civil war 75000 a b c f g h j k l o
1965 2013+ EW 2 Israel Ethnic war (Arab Palestinians/PLO) 22000 d f g j k l o p
1966 * CW 3 Nigeria Repression of Ibo 20000 c e
1966 * EV 1 Uganda Ethnic violence (Buganda) 2000 a b c h o
1966 1970 EW 6 Nigeria Ethnic warfare (Biafra separatism) 200000 a b c f h k o
1966 1975 CW 5 China "Cultural Revolution" 500000 a c e f h k
1966 1996 EW 5 Guatemala Repression of indigenous peoples 150000 a b c d e f h j k l o
1967 * CV 1 Zaire Civil violence 800 c p
1967 1970 IW 4 Egypt
Israel
Jordan
Syria
"Six-Day War" and war of attrition 75000 a b c d f g h n
1968 * CV 1 France Civil violence (student and labor unrest) 3000 f
1968 * CV 1 Czechoslovakia "Prague Spring" civil violence 1000 c f g
1968 1982 CV 1 India Repression of Naxalites 2000 e
1969 * IV 1 USSR
China
Ussuri River border dispute 1000 a c f g
1969 * IW 2 El Salvador
Honduras
"Soccer War" 5000 a b c f g h n
1969 1979 CV 4 Equatorial Guinea Repression of dissidents 50000 p
1969 1994 EV 2 UK Ethnic violence (Northern Ireland/IRA) 3000 b c d f j k l o
1970 * CV 3 Jordan Civil violence (Palestinians) 10000 a b c f g h k o
1970 1975 CV 1 Oman Civil violence (Dhofar rebellion) 3000 g k o
1970 1975 CW 5 Cambodia Civil war 150000 a b c f h k o
1970 1982 EV 1 Italy Ethnic violence (Sardinians) 2000 f
1971 * CV 2 Sri Lanka Civil violence (attempted coup) 10000 a b c f h k o
1971 * EW 6 Bangladesh
Pakistan
Ethnic war (Bengali independence) 1000000 a b c e f g h k o
1971 * IW 3 India
Pakistan
International war 11000 a b c d g h n
1971 1978 EW 5 Uganda Ethnic warfare (Idi Amin regime) 250000 a b e k o
1972 * EV 2 Burundi Ethnic violence (Hutus target Tutsis) 2000 b f g o
1972 1973 EW 4 Burundi Repression of Hutus 100000 a b c e f g h k o
1972 1979 EV 3 Zimbabwe Ethnic violence (ZANU/ZAPU v Whites) 20000 a b f g h k o
1972 1997 CW 3 Philippines Civil warfare (New Peoples Army) 40000 a b c d h l o p
1972 2013+ EW 3 Philippines Ethnic warfare (Moros) 52000 a b c d e f h j k l o p
1973 * IW 3 Egypt
Israel
Syria
"Yom Kippur War" 16000 a b c d f g h n
1973 * CV 2 Chile Civil violence (army ouster of Allende) 5000 a b c f
1973 1977 EW 2 Pakistan Ethnic warfare (Baluch separatism) 12000 a b e f h k o
1974 * CV 2 Cyprus Civil violence 5000 a b c f g h k n o
1974 1975 IV 1 Iran
Iraq
International violence (Shatt el Arab) 1000 f g
1974 1976 CW 3 Chile Repression of dissidents ("disappeared") 20000 a b e k
1974 1985 CV 2 Turkey Civil violence 8000 f
1974 1991 EW 6 Ethiopia Ethnic warfare (Eritreans and others) 750000 a b c d e f h j k l o
1975 1978 CW 6 Cambodia7 Khmer Rouge repression of dissidents 1500000 a b e g k
1975 1979 IV 1 Mozambique
Zimbabwe
Rhodesian armed incursions 1400 i p
1975 1978 IW 2 Cambodia7
Vietnam
International war 10000 h n
1975 1989 CW 3 Mauritania (1979)2
Morocco
Colonial war (Western Sahara) 15000 a b c d f g h j k l o
1975 1990 CV 2 Laos Civil violence (rebel Lao and Hmong) 10000 d f g k l
1975 1991 EV 2 Indonesia Ethnic violence (Aceh) 15000 j l o
1975 1991 EW 5 Lebanon Ethnic war (Various sects) 100000 a b c d g h k l o
1975 1992 EW 2 Bangladesh Ethnic war (Chittagong Hills) 25000 d j l o
1975 2002 CW 6 Angola Civil war (UNITA) 1000000 a b c d f g h j k l o p
1975 2005 CV 1 Angola Civil violence (Cabinda separatists; FLEC) 3500 p
1975 2013+ CV 4 Colombia Civil violence, land reform, and drug trafficking (left: ELN, FARC, ELP, MAO, M-19; right: MAS, AUC) 57500 a d f h k l o p
1976 * EV 1 South Africa Ethnic violence 1000 a d k o
1976 * CV 1 Sudan Islamic Charter Front 1000 p
1976 1980 CW 3 Argentina "The Dirty War" repression of dissidents 20000 a b e f k
1976 1992 CW 5 Indonesia Colonial war (East Timor) 180000 a b c d e f g h j k l o
1977 * IV 1 Angola
Zaire
International violence (dispute over Shaba) 1000 f g
1977 1979 EW 2 Ethiopia "Ogaden War" ethnic violence (Somalis) 10000 b c f g h n o
1977 1980 EV 2 Turkey Ethnic violence (Armenians) 5000 a b
1977 1983 CW 2 Zaire Repression of dissidents 10000 e k
1977 1987 IV 1 Cambodia
Thailand
International violence 1000 i n
1978 * IV 2 Israel
Lebanon
International violence (PLO factions) 5000 d
1978 * IV 1 Angola
Zaire
International violence (dispute over Shaba) 1000 f g
1978 * CV 1 Somalia Military faction 500 p
1978 * CV 1 Yemen PDR Ouster of President Ali; factional fighting 750 p
1978 1979 IV 1 Yemen AR
Yemen PDR
International violence 1000 i p
1978 1979 CW 3 Nicaragua Civil war (Sandinistas) 40000 a b c f g h k o
1978 1979 IW 2 Tanzania
Uganda
International war (ouster of Idi Amin) 3000 a b c g h n
1978 1989 IW 5 Cambodia7
Vietnam
International war (ouster of Khmer Rouge) 65000 a b c d f g h o
1978 1993 CW 4 Iran Civil war (Islamic state) 50000 a b c d e f h k l o
1978 2002 CW 7 Afghanistan Civil war 1000000 a b c d e f g h j k l o p
1979 * IW 4 China
Vietnam
International war 30000 a b c f g h n
1979 1980 CV 1 South Korea Unrest, riots, and government repression 1000 a k
1979 1982 CW 3 Syria Repression of dissidents (Muslim Brotherhood) 25000 a b e f k
1979 1985 EW 3 Iran Ethnic war (Kurds) 40000 j k o
1979 1992 CW 6 El Salvador Civil war (FMLN) 75000 a b c d e f g h k l o
1979 1998 EV 3 Iraq Ethnic violence (Shias) 25000 f h j o p
1980 * CV 1 Brazil Repression of dissidents (death squads) 1000 a
1980 * CV 1 Jamaica Civil violence (elections) 1000 a f
1980 1985 EV 2 Nigeria Ethnic violence (Islamic groups) 9000 a f h k o p
1980 1988 IW 6 Iran
Iraq
International war 500000 a b c f g h n
1980 1988 IV 3 USSR4 Direct Intervention in Afghanistan civil war 50000 a b c d e f g h j k l o p
1980 1998 EV 2 China Ethnic violence (Uighurs, Kazakhs) 10000 j k o p
1981 * EV 1 Ghana Civil violence (Konkomba v Nanumba) 1000 a f
1981 * CV 1 Gambia SRLP rebellion 650 p
1981 1986 CW 4 Uganda Repression of dissidents 100000 a e f h k o
1981 1986 IV 1 Honduras
Nicaragua
International violence; Contra armed forces 2000 i p
1981 1987 EV 2 Zimbabwe Ethnic violence (Ndebele) 3000 a f k o
1981 1990 CW 3 Nicaragua Civil war (Contras) 30000 a b d f g h k l o
1981 1992 CW 6 Mozambique Civil war (RENAMO) 500000 a b d f g h k l o
1982 * IV 1 Israel
Syria
International violence 1000 h n
1982 * IW 1 Argentina
UK
Falklands-Malvinas War 1000 a b f g h n
1982 1990 IW 4 Israel
Lebanon
International war 50000 a b
1982 1997 CV 3 Peru Civil violence (Sendero Luminoso) 30000 a b d f h j k l o p
1983 * CV 2 India Civil violence (elections in Assam) 3000 a
1983 1984 CV 2 China Repression of dissidents 5000 a
1983 1993 EW 3 India Ethnic warfare (Sikhs) 25000 a b d f h j k l
1983 1996 EW 3 South Africa Ethnic/civil warfare 20000 a d j k l o
1983 1998 EV 1 Pakistan Ethnic violence (Sindhis; Muhajirs) 5000 k
1983 2009 EW 5 Sri Lanka Ethnic war (Tamils) 75000 a b d e f g h j k l o p
1983 2002 EW 6 Sudan Ethnic war (Islamic v African) 1000000 a b d f h j k l o p
1984 * CV 1 Cameroon Military faction 750 p
1984 * EV 1 Zaire Ethnic/civil warfare 1000 k
1984 1999 EW 3 Turkey Ethnic warfare (Kurds) 40000 d g h j k l p
1985 * CW 2 Liberia Repression of dissidents (failed coup) 5000 a
1985 1987 IW 2 China
Vietnam
International war 4000 h n
1986 1987 CW 2 Yemen PDR Civil war 10000 a b h k o
1986 1989 EW 1 Suriname Rebellion by Surinamese Liberation Army (black-Maroons) 900 p
1986 1993 EV 2 Nigeria Ethnic violence (Muslim-Christian) 10000 j o
1986 2006 EV 2 Uganda Ethnic violence (Lord's Resistance Army: Langi and Acholi) 16000 d j k l o p
1987 * IV 1 China
Vietnam
International violence 1000 a i
1987 * CV 2 Chile Civil violence 3000 a b
1987 1990 CW 4 Sri Lanka Civil war (JVP-Sinhalese extremists) 25000 h k l o
1988 * CV 1 Myanmar Civil violence (student protests) 2000 k
1988 * EV 3 Burundi Ethnic violence (Tutsis against Hutus) 10000 a b h k o
1988 1997 EW 3 Azerbaijan Ethnic War (Nagorno-Karabakh) 15000 h j k l n o p
1988 1997 EW 1 Papua New Guinea Ethnic warfare (Bougainville) 1000 k l o p
1988 2013+ CW 5 Somalia Civil war 115000 a b d h j k l o p
1989 * CV 1 China Civil violence (Tiananman protests) 2000 a k
1989 * IV 1 Panama
USA
International violence 1000 a l
1989 * CV 1 Romania Civil violence 1000 a h k l o
1989 * IV 2 Mauritania
Senegal
Reciprocal violence against foreign nationals; forced repatriation 500 l p
1990 * CW 1 China Repression of dissidents 2000 a
1990 1991 EV 2 USSR Sporadic ethnic/communal violence 5000 k l
1990 1991 IW 5 Iraq
Kuwait
Gulf War 100000 h l n
1990 1994 EW 3 Rwanda Ethnic warfare (Tutsis v Hutu regime)5 15000 h j k l o
1990 1994 IW 3 Armenia
Azerbaijan
International war (Nagorno-Karabakh) 10000 h j k l n o
1990 1995 EV 1 Mali Ethnic violence (Tuareg) 1000 k o p
1990 1997 CW 4 Liberia Civil war 40000 a d h j k l o p
1990 1997 EV 1 Niger Ethnic violence (Azawad and Toubou) 1000 l o
1990 1997 CW 2 Cambodia Civil warfare (Khmer Rouge) 5000 l
1990 2012+ EW 3 India Ethnic war (Kashmiris) 43500 j k l o p
1991 * CW 2 Croatia Civil war (Croatian independence) 10000 h k l
1991 * CV 1 Burundi Civil violence 1000 h l
1991 * CV 1 Haiti Military coup ousts Aristide 700 k l p
1991 1993 EV 2 Bhutan Rebellion and forced repatriation of Lhotshampas (ethnic-Nepalese) 1200 p
1991 1993 CW 1 Georgia Civil war 1000 h k l
1991 1993 EW 2 Georgia Ethnic war (Abkhazians-Ossetians) 3000 h j k l o
1991 1993 EV 1 Kenya Ethnic violence (Kalenjin, Masai, Kikuyu, Luo) 2000 j k o
1991 1994 CW 1 Djibouti FRUD rebellion 1000 l o
1991 1995 EW 3 Croatia Ethnic war (Serbs) 40000 j k l o
1991 1997 EV 1 Moldova Ethnic violence (Trans-Dniester Russians) 2000 j k l o p
1991 2001 CW 3 Sierra Leone Civil/Ethnic warfare (RUF/Mende) 25000 k l m p
1991 2004 CW 4 Algeria Civil warfare (Islamic militants) 60000 k l o p
1991 2002 EV 2 India Ethnic violence (Ayodhya Movement; Hindu vs Muslim) 3500 j
1992 1995 EW 6 Bosnia Ethnic war (Serbs, Croats, Muslims) 200000 h j k l o
1992 1996 EV 2 Zaire Ethnic violence 10000 j k o
1992 1998 CW 3 Tajikistan Civil warfare 25000 h k l o p
1992 1999 CV 1 Egypt Civil violence (Islamic militants) 2000 k o p
1992 1999 EV 1 Senegal Ethnic violence (Casamance) 3000 l p
1993 * EV 1 Congo-Brazzaville Ethnic violence 2000 m
1993 2005 EW 4 Burundi Ethnic warfare (Tutsis against Hutus) 100000 j k l p
1994 * EW 7 Rwanda Ethnic violence (Hutus target Tutsis)5 500000 k l o
1994 * EV 1 Ghana Ethnic violence 1000 m
1994 * EW 1 Yemen Ethnic warfare (south Yemenis) 3000 l o
1994 1996 EW 4 Russia Ethnic war (Chechnya secession I) 40000 k l o
1994 1997 EV 1 Mexico Ethnic violence (Chiapas) 1000 l o p
1994 1998 EW 3 Rwanda Ethnic warfare (Hutus vs Tutsi regime)5 15000 p
1995 * IV 1 Ecuador
Peru
International violence (border dispute) 1000 l
1996 1998 EW 1 Iraq Ethnic warfare (Kurds) 2000 k l p
1996 2006 CW 2 Nepal Civil war (UPF "People's War") 8000 l p
1996 2013+ CW 5 Dem. Rep. of Congo (Zaire) Civil War (ouster of Mobutu & aftermath; Interhamwe in NE) 2500000 k l p
1996 2002 IV 2 Rwanda4 Direct Intervention in DRCongo civil war 3500 l p
1996 2002 IV 1 Uganda4 Direct Intervention in DRCongo civil war 1200 l p
1997 1999 CW 3 Congo-Brazzaville Civil warfare 10000 l p
1997 * CV 2 Albania Civil violence (Pyramid Schemes) 2000 l p
1997 2005 EV 1 Indonesia Ethnic violence (Aceh; GAM militants) 3000 l p
1997 2010 EV 1 Nigeria Communal violence (Delta province; Ijaw, Itsekeri, and others) 2500 l p
1997 2013+ EV 1 Pakistan Sectarian violence: Sunnis, Shi'ites, and Ahmadis 4000 l p
1998 1999 EW 4 Yugoslavia Ethnic war (Kosovar Albanians) 15000 l p
1998 * CV 2 Indonesia Civil violence (ouster of Suharto) 2000 l p
1998 * EW 1 Georgia Ethnic warfare (Abkhazia) 1000 l p
1998 1999 CW 2 Guinea-Bissau Civil war (coup attempt) 6000 l p
1998 2000 IW 5 Eritrea
Ethiopia
Interstate war 100000 l p
1998 2003 IV 1 Iraq International violence (US/UK airstrikes) 1000 l p
1998 2003 EV 1 Solomon Islands Communal violence (Malaita/Isatabu islanders) 500 l p
1999 * IV 1 India
Pakistan
International violence (Kargil clashes) 1500 l p
1999 * CV 2 Indonesia Ethnic violence (East Timor independence) 3000 l p
1999 2002 EV 1 Indonesia Ethnic violence (Moluccas; Muslim/Christian) 3500 l p
1999 * IV 3 Yugoslavia International violence (NATO airstrikes) 1000 l p
1999 2000 EW 1 Ethiopia Ethnic war (Oromo separatists) 2000 l p
1999 2006 EW 4 Russia Ethnic war (Chechnya secession II) 30000 l p
2000 2001 CV 1 Guinea Parrot's Beak clashes 1000 l p
2000 2003 CV 1 Liberia Civil violence (attacks by LURD guerillas) 1000 l p
2000 2005 CW 2 Ivory Coast Civil war (north, south, and west divisions) 3000 l p
2001 * EV 1 Indonesia Communal (Dayaks vs Madurese immigrants) 1000 l p
2001 * EW 1 Rwanda Ethnic war (attacks by Hutu guerillas) 2500 l p
2001 * IV 2 United States Al Qaeda attacks on New York/Washington 3000 l p
2001 2003 CV 1 Central African Rep. Civil violence (attacks by Bozize loyalists; coup) 1000 l p
2001 2004 EV 3 Nigeria Ethnic violence (Christian-Muslim; Plateau, Kano regions) 55000 l p
2001 2013+ IW 3 Afghanistan
Ouster of Taliban; Hunt for al Qaeda 42000 l p
2001 2013+ CV 2 India Maoist insurgency (People's War Group; Maoist Communist Centre; People's Liberation Guerrilla Army) 7200 l p
2002 2003 CV 1 Congo-Brazzaville Civil violence (Ninja militants in Pool region) 500 l p
2003 * CV 1 Thailand Anti-Drug Traffiking Campaign 2500 l p
2003 2010 IW 6 Iraq6 US-led Ouster of Hussein-Ba'athist regime and consequent sectarian strife: Sunnis, Shias, Kurds, and foreign al Qaeda 150000 l p
2003 2010 IW 2 United States6 Invasion of Iraq and military occupation 4400 l p
2003 2007 CV 1 Saudi Arabia Islamic Militants 700 l p
2003 2013+ EV 5 Sudan Communal-separatist violence in Darfur 350000 l p
2004 2013+ CV 1 Yemen Followers of al-Huthi in Sadaa 3500 l p
2004 2007 CV 1 Haiti General unrest surrounding ouster of President Aristide and his Lavalas Family ruling party 2000 l p
2004 2013+ EW 4 Pakistan Pashtuns in Federally Administered Tribal Areas 38250 l p
2004 2013+ EV 1 Thailand Malay-Muslims in southern border region (Narathiwat, Pattani, Songkhla, and Yala provinces) 4000 l p
2004 2013+ EV 1 Turkey Kurds in the southeast 2500 l p
2005 2013+ EV 1 Pakistan Rebellion in Baluchistan 3000 l p
2005 2010 CW 1 Chad Anti-Deby regime: United Front for Democratic Change (FUC), Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD), and others 2000 l p
2005 2013+ EW 2 Central African Republic APRD (northwest), UFDR (northeast), and Seleka rebels 5000 l p
2005 2013+ IV 1 United States Stabilization operation in Afghanistan 2200 l p
2006 * IV 2 Israel
Lebanon
Israel vs Hezbollah 1500 l p
2006 2008 EV 1 Kenya Sabaot Land Defense Forces (SLDF) rebellion in Mt. Elgon 800 l p
2006 2013+ CV 3 Mexico Federal Army and police offensive against entrenched drug cartels and corrupt police and officials, mainly in the northern region bordering the USA 75000 l p
2006 2010 EV 2 Chad Communal fighting between Toroboro ("black" sedentary farmer) and Janjawid ("arab" pastoralist) militias 5000 l p
2007 2008 EV 1 Lebanon Palestinian/Islamist militants 500 l p
2007 2013+ EV 1 Ethiopia Somalis (ONLF) and Oromo (OLF) militants in Ogaden region 2800 l p
2008 * IW 1 Georgia
Russia
South Ossetia War 850 l p
2008 * EV 3 Kenya Communal violence following disputed presidential election 1500 l p
2008 * EV 1 Nigeria Communal violence in Jos: Christian and Muslim 800 l p
2008 2013+ EV 1 Russia Ethnic violence (Islamist militants in eastern Transcaucasus region: Chechnya, Dagestan, and Ingushetia) 4000 l p
2009 2013+ CW 2 Nigeria Rebellion by radical-Muslim Boko Haram in north border region 8000 l p
2009 2013+ EV 1 South Sudan Communal violence in south: Lou Nuer and Murle; rebel militias 3500 l p
2010 2013+ EV 1 Nigeria Communal violence in Jos/Plateau state: Christian and Muslim 3000 l p
2010 * EV 2 Kyrgyzstan Ethnic violence (Kyrgyz; Uzbeks, following ouster of Bakiyev) 600 l p
2011 * CV 1 Egypt Popular protests against Mubarak regime 1000 l p
2011 * CW 2 Ivory Coast Rejection of December 2010 presidential election results by regime leads to resumption of civil war and ends with arrest of President Gbagbo 3000 l p
2011 2013+ EV 3 Iraq Continuing Sunni-Shia sectrian strife 15500 l p
2011 2013+ EW 5 Syria Popular protests and regime crackdown trigger warfare with ethnic-Sunni miltants and Islamiist-extremists against Assad's ethnic-Alawite regime 140000 l p
2011 * CW 4 Libya Anti-Gaddhafi elements centered in the eastern coastal region; NATO intervention 25000 l p
2011 2013+ CV 1 Yemen Anti-Saleh demonstrations, southern separatists, army mutiny, clan rivalry, and al Qaeda militants 4000 l p
2011 2013+ EV 1 Sudan Armed supporters of the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM-North) in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states 3000 l p
2012 2013 CV 1 Mali Islamist Ansar Dine and ethnic-Tuareg "Azawad" separatists 1000 l p
2013 * CV 1 Egypt Military ouster of President Morsi and crackdown on MUslim Brotherhood; Islamist rebellion in Sinai and south 2000 p
2013 * EW 3 South Sudan Rebellion by ethnic Nuer supporters of Reik Machar leads to war with ethnic Dinka supporters of President Salva Kiir 10000 p
2013 * EV 1 Dem. Rep. of Congo Ethnic Mai Mai separatist rebellion in Katanga Province 750 p

Notes and Sources

* The research described in this data-collection project was sponsored by the Political Instability Task Force (PITF). The PITF is funded by the Central Intelligence Agency. The views expressed herein are the author's/authors' alone and do not represent the views of the US Government.

1. Ethnic separatist resistance in the border regions of Myanmar (Burma) includes several groups, such as the Kachins, Karen, Karreni, Mons, Rohingyas, Shan, Wa, and others. Because information on political activity in Myanmar has been, and continues to be, so poor, it has not been possible to list the rebellions separately despite the fact that there is little evidence of collusion between rebel groups.

2. In cases where the sovereignty of a distinct territory is ambiguous and contested by the parties in conflict, the episode is coded as an international conflict until authority has either been successfully imposed or resisted, after which subsequent episodes are coded according to the sovereignty thus established.

3. The case of Malaysian independence and civil violence is continuous and coded IN3 for the period prior to official independence in 1957 (i.e., 1957) and CV3 afterward (i.e., 1958-1960).

4. The United States' and Chinaís direct involvement in the Korean civil war, France's direct involvement in the Indochinese and Algerian wars of independence, Portugal's direct involvement in the Angola and Mozambique colonial wars, the United Statesí direct involvement in the Vietnamese civil war, the Soviet Unionís direct involvement in the civil war in Afghanistan, and Rwanda and Uganda's direct involvement in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) civil war are unique cases of external involvement that surpass the limited and indirect engagement usually accorded to acts of external interventions and, so, are coded as singular episodes of international violence or warfare separate from the civil warfare episodes in which they were engaged. These separate listings for "internationalized civil war" involvements are not considered as unique "major episodes of political violence" in tabulating event counts.

5. The end of the Angola independence war (1961-1975) coincides with the beginning of the Angola civil war (1975-2002). The Rwanda case is unique in that it involves a sudden and complete transference of political power as the Tutsi insurgency mounts an offensive and seizes power following the Hutu regime-instigated genocide. Former members of the Hutu regime and, especially, those responsible for the genocide then take up arms against the new Tutsi-dominated regime. These contiguous episodes are listed as two separate episodes but are recorded in the data record as though they were continual episodes (i.e., with no overlap of the two contiguous episodes).

6. The Iraq war (2003-2008+) is recorded as an international war (IW6) because the 2003 invasion by US forces triggered an armed resistance by indigenous and foreign militants within Iraq and a communal war involving Sunni, Shia, and Kurd communal groups; in effect, this episode in treated as a "domesticized interstate war." The effect on the United States resulting from its direct invasion of Iraq, its forceful ouster of the Saddam Hussein-led Ba'athist regime, and its continued support for the new, Shia-dominated government in the ensuing civil war is coded separately from the Iraq case; the US case is coded as an international war (IW) with magnitude 2.

7. Vietnam armed forces invaded Cambodia in November 1978 and ousted the Khmer Rouge regime in December 1978. This episode escalates a prior interstate war between Cambodia and Vietnam (IW2 1975-1978) and overlaps with the prior civil war episode in Cambodia (CW6 1975-1978). In the data record for the year 1978, Cambodia is recorded with an IW2 and CW6; Vietnam is recorded with an IW5.

Information sources (References): There is no general agreement among scholars as to what constitutes a major episode of armed conflict. The most common divisions in the relevant research center on episode type or interstate-intrastate conflict distinctions, further complicating the comprehensive compilation of episodes of all types. The reference numbers list those from the following sixteen sources that include the episode with the purview of their particular classification scheme.

a. Ruth Leger Sivard. 1991. World Military and Social Expenditures 1991. 14th ed. Washington, DC: World Priorities. (Also, consulted 16th ed., 1996, see "m" below.) Criteria: "...armed conflict involving one or more governments and causing the death of 1,000 or more people per year." (Sivard 1991, 25)

b. Patrick Brogan. 1989. World Conflicts: Why and Where They are Happening. London: Bloomsbury. Criteria: "...includes all the major wars and insurrections since 1945, but leaves out many lesser insurrections and riots, many of which resulted in the deaths of thousands of people."

c. Melvin Small and J. David Singer. 1982. Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980. Beverly Hills: Sage. Criteria: Interstate wars during which the total "battle-connected fatalities among military personnel" for all participants was at least 1000 per year; extra-systemic wars during which battle deaths exceeded the 1000 per year threshold for the system-member; civil wars which resulted in at least 1000 deaths per year including both civilian and military personnel. (Small and Singer 1982, 71)

d. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). 1968-1993. World Armaments and Disarmament: SIPRI Yearbook. Annual series. Stockholm: SIPRI. Criteria: Major armed conflicts, defined as "prolonged combat between the military forces of two or more governments or of one government and at least one organized armed group, involving the use of weapons and incurring battle-related deaths of at least 1000 persons." (SIPRI 1992, 417)

e. Barbara Harff and Ted Robert Gurr. 1988. "Toward Empirical Theory of Genocides and Politicides: Identification and Measurement of Cases since 1945." International Studies Quarterly 32: 359-371. Criteria: Cases of "massive state repression" which are "sustained episodes in which the state or its agents impose on a communal or political group 'conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part.'"

f. G. D. Kaye, D. A. Grant, and E. J. Emond. 1985. Major Armed Conflict: A Compendium of Interstate and Intrastate Conflict, 1720 to 1985. Ottawa, Canada: Department of National Defense. Criteria: "In a general sense, the conflict modes involve two or more groups (nations and/or actors) in which the use of force was a significant factor in the event. This includes both internal and international events. At least one nation is involved in every conflict listed."

g. Herbert K. Tillema. 1991. International Armed Conflict Since 1945: A Bibliographic Handbook of Wars and Military Interventions. Boulder: Westview Press. Criteria: "An international armed conflict is operationally defined to include all directly related foreign overt military interventions undertaken by one or more states within one or more foreign political territories....Onset of the first directly related foreign overt military intervention and cessation of the last intervention are taken as the beginning and the end of an international armed conflict." (Tillema 1991, 12 fn.8)

h. J. David Singer and Melvin Small. 1993. The Correlates of War Project: International and Civil War Data, 1816-1992. Computer file. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Criteria: See source reference number 3 above, except that the criteria for "Extra-systemic" wars has been changed from "1000 annual average battle deaths per year" to "1000 battle deaths total for all participating interstate system members and the troop commitment criterion."

i. List of International and Civil Wars Excluded (1980-1988). Personal correspondence with Ricardo R. Rodriguiz, Data Management Assistant, Correlates of War Project, dated May 25, 1993. Criteria: Recognized in the literature as an episode of "armed conflict" but fail to meet minimum criteria for definition as one of the three COW categories; see source reference "c" above.

j. Ted Robert Gurr. 1994. "Peoples Against States: Ethnopolitical Conflict and the Changing World System." International Studies Quarterly 38: 347-377. Criteria: Serious ethnopolitical conflicts involving armed violence and resulting in large numbers of casualties and dislocated populations.

k. Daniel C. Esty, Jack A. Goldstone, Ted Robert Gurr, Barbara Harff, Marc Levy, Geoffrey D. Dabelko, Pamela T. Surko, Alan N. Unger. 1998. State Failure Task Force Report: Phase II Findings. McLean, VA: Science Applications International Corporation. Criteria: The State Failure Problem Set includes four types of events: Ethnic Wars, Revolutionary Wars, Geno/Politicides, and Abrupt or Disruptive Regime Transitions. Only the first three types of events meet the general criteria to be considered a major armed conflict for cross-referencing here. Ethnic Wars are "episodes of violent conflict between governments and national, ethnic, religious, or other communal minorities (ethnic challengers) in which the challengers seek major changes in their status." Revolutionary Wars are "episodes of violent conflict between governments and politically organized groups (political challengers) that seek to overthrow the central government, to replace its leaders, or to seize power in one region." Geno/politicide is "the promotion, execution, and/or implied consent of sustained policies by governing elites or their agents-or, in the case of civil war, either of the contending authorities-that result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a communal and/or politicized communal group." Episodes of Geno/Politicide must have lasted six months or more to be included. Revolutionary and Ethnic Wars are included if they pass a minimum threshold wherein each party must mobilize 1000 or more people (armed agents, demonstrators, troops) and average 100 or more fatalities per year during the episode. The State Failure Problem Set is updated annually for the Political Instability Task Force by Societal-Systems Research Inc; the most recent version of the data is available on the CSP/INSCR Data Page.

l. Peter Wallensteen and Margareta Sollenberg (and others). 2008-2012. "Armed Conflict and Regional Conflict Complexes."Annual report in Journal of Peace Research. Criteria: Wallensteen and Sollenberg include three types of events in their study: minor armed conflict, intermediate armed conflict, and war. Only the latter two types meet the general criteria for inclusion here. Intermediate armed conflicts have "more than 1,000 battle-related deaths recorded during the course of the conflict, but fewer than 1,000 in any given year." Wars have "more than 1,000 battle-related deaths during any given year." (Wallensteen and Sollenberg 1998, 621)

m. Ruth Leger Sivard. 1996. World Military and Social Expenditures 1996. 16th ed. Washington, DC: World Priorities. Criteria: "...armed conflict involving one or more governments and causing the death of 1,000 or more people per year." (Updates "a" above.)

n. Correlates of War. 1994. Militarized Interstate Disputes. Computer File. ICPSR version. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Criteria: Fatality category 5 and 6 cases were chosen for cross-referencing; category 5 includes disputes where fatalities range from 501 to 999 (1 case) and category 6 includes disputes with over 999 fatalities (24 cases).

o. Patrick M. Regan 1996. "Conditions of Successful Third-Party Intervention in Intrastate Conflicts." Journal of Conflict Resolution 40: 336-359. Criteria: Regan defines episodes of intrastate conflict as "armed, sustained combat between groups within state boundaries in which there are at least 200 fatalities." (Regan 1996, 338) Appendix lists only the 85 conflicts that had at least one intervention (of 138 total), only three of the conflicts listed fall below the standard 1000 fatalities threshold.

p. Monty G. Marshall. 1998-2014. "Current Status of the World's Major Episodes of Political Violence." Monthly reports to US Government's Political Instability Task Force, most recent report March 6, 2014.

This comprehensive compilation is a substantial revision and update of earlier works published in the following sources (each are available in the CSP Virtual Library as electronic documents):
Monty G. Marshall. 1999. Third World War: System, Process, and Conflict Dynamics. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Monty G. Marshall. 2002. "Measuring the Societal Impact of War," chapter 4 in Fen Osler Hampson and David M. Malone, eds., From Reaction to Conflict Prevention: Opportunities for the UN System. A project of the International Peace Academy. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publisher.
Monty G. Marshall and Ted Robert Gurr. 2005. Peace and Conflict 2005: A Global Survey of Armed Conflicts, Democracy, and Self-Determination Movements. College Park, MD: Center for International Development and Conflict Management. Biennial report series; also published in 2001 and 2003.
Monty G. Marshall and Benjamin R. Cole. 2011. Global Report 2011: Conflict, Governance, and State Fragility. Vienna, VA: Center for Systemic Peace. Serial report; also published in 2007, 2008, and 2009.




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